What is Ankle Instability?
Ankle instability is a chronic condition characterized by a recurrent slipping of the outer side of the ankle. It usually results from repeated ankle sprains. It is generally noticed during movement of the ankle joint but can also occur during standing as well.
What Causes Ankle Instability?
Repetitive injury of the ankle ligaments on the same side is the most common cause of ankle instability. Inadequate healing of the sprained ligament or incomplete rehabilitation of the affected ligament can also result in ankle instability. Recurrent injury of the ligaments further weakens them and aggravates the instability which predisposes to the development of additional ankle problems.
What are the Symptoms of Ankle Instability?
The most common symptoms associated with ankle instability include:
- Pain in the ankle joint
- Swelling and tenderness of the ankle
- Persistent discomfort and instability
- The unstable ankle may turn repeatedly while walking on uneven surfaces or during a sporting activity
How is Ankle Instability Diagnosed?
A complete medical history, including a history of any previous ankle injuries, and a physical examination is essential for an accurate diagnosis of the condition. An X-ray may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis. Other imaging tests may also be used to further evaluate the injury.
How is Ankle Instability Treated?
The management of ankle instability depends on the findings of the physical examination and the activity level of the patient.
Conservative treatment includes physical therapy for improving the strength, balance and range of motion of the joint, bracing to support the affected ankle and prevent further sprain, and non-steroidal anti- inflammatory (NSAIDs) to reduce the pain and inflammation.
Surgery is recommended in patients with a high degree of instability and in those who have failed to respond to non-surgical treatment. Commonly used surgical procedures involve repair or reconstruction of the damaged ligament.